[271] Non-communicable diseases risk factors in North Korea include high rates of urbanization, an aging society, and high rates of smoking and alcohol consumption amongst men. Democratic People's Republic of Korea The Ministry of People's Armed Forces is subordinated to the latter. [59][60] Some have referred to the conflict as a civil war, with other factors involved. Kim Il-sung is still officially revered as the nation's "Eternal President". Command of the Korean People's Army lies in both the Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea and the independent State Affairs Commission. [370], On 7 February 2016, North Korea successfully launched a long-range rocket, supposedly to place a satellite into orbit. According to a 2004 South Korean assessment, North Korea possesses a stockpile of chemical weapons estimated to amount to 2,500–5,000 tons, including nerve, blister, blood, and vomiting agents, as well as the ability to cultivate and produce biological weapons including anthrax, smallpox, and cholera. Some scholars believe that the 1956 August incident demonstrated independence. Ambassador Shtykov suspected Rhee was planning to invade the North and was sympathetic to Kim's goal of Korean unification under socialism. [118] The Premier represents the government and functions independently. Meaning; DPRK. In September 1946, South Korean citizens rose up against the Allied Military Government. [172] On 30 June 2019, Trump met with Kim along with Moon Jae-in at the Korean DMZ. [290][291] Amnesty International has expressed concerns about religious persecution in North Korea. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve and paramilitary personnel, or approximately 37% of its population. [417] The main news provider is the Korean Central News Agency. "[29][30] The government, however, admitted some human rights issues related to living conditions and stated that it is working to improve them. [101], North Korea functions as a highly centralized, one-party state. [265] Two-thirds of households consist of extended families mostly living in two-room units. The daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang are −3 and −13 °C (27 and 9 °F) in January and 29 and 20 °C (84 and 68 °F) in August. Sci-fi works glorify technology and promote the Juche concept of anthropocentric existence through depictions of robotics, space exploration and immortality. [98] The longest river is the Amnok (Yalu) River which flows for 790 kilometers (491 mi). [195] People perceived as hostile to the government, such as Christians or critics of the leadership,[196] are deported to labor camps without trial,[197] often with their whole family and mostly without any chance of being released. [388], Visual arts are generally produced in the esthetics of Socialist realism. On his 60th birthday (based on his official date of birth), mass celebrations occurred throughout the country. [350] North Korea connects with the Trans-Siberian Railway through Rajin. Suffering an economic crisis, it closed a number of its embassies. The military faces some issues limiting its conventional capabilities, including obsolete equipment, insufficient fuel supplies and a shortage of digital command and control assets due to other countries being banned from selling weapons to it by the UN sanctions. The study of natural sciences is greatly emphasized while social sciences are neglected. [424] Occasional deliberate disinformation on the part of North Korean establishments further complicates the issue. [124] It has also been described as a Stalinist dictatorship. [267] While North Korea is classified as a low-income country, the structure of North Korea's causes of death (2013) is unlike that of other low-income countries. Pyongyang is the country's capital and largest city. [253], According to Military Watch Magazine's military strength list, DPR Korea has the sixth most powerful military, placing it in the "Tier 2" military powers group. There is much speculation about this policy being used as a strategy to strengthen the military while discouraging coup attempts. South Korea. Several landmarks in North Korea are named for Kim Il-sung, including Kim Il-sung University, Kim Il-sung Stadium, and Kim Il-sung Square. [345] The government under Kim Jong-un has increased emphasis on renewable energy projects like wind farms, solar parks, solar heating and biomass. In fact, it is ridiculous for such gay [sic] to sponsor dealing with others' human rights issue. North Korea's policy is to seek reunification without what it sees as outside interference, through a federal structure retaining each side's leadership and systems. [282] Heuristics is actively applied to develop the independence and creativity of students throughout the system. In April 1948, an uprising of the Jeju islanders was violently crushed. "Deterring a Nuclear-Armed Adversary in a Contested Regional Order: The 'Trilemma' of US–North Korea Relations. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist State representing the interests of all the Korean people. The same year, North Korea revalued the North Korean won, which held greater value than its South Korean counterpart. [308] A significant contribution to the food supply comes from commercial fishing and aquaculture. After four failed attempts, North Korea became the tenth spacefaring nation with the launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 in December 2012, which successfully reached orbit but was believed to be crippled and non-operational. North Korea rejects peace talks with South Korea " South Korea is a very wealthy nation that now feels an obligation to contribute to the military defense provided by the United States of America," Trump wrote, saying, "The relationship between the two countries is a very good one!" The main deficiencies of higher education are the heavy presence of ideological subjects, which comprise 50% of courses in social studies and 20% in sciences,[281] and the imbalances in curriculum. [43], After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon (조선) in North Korea, and Hanguk (한국) in South Korea. According to a United Nations Environmental Programme report in 2003, forest covers over 70 percent of the country, mostly on steep slopes. KOR Alpha-3.kr TLD. [citation needed] North Korea has one of the densest air defence networks in the world. 22 Dec. 2020. Keep in mind that the abbreviation of NK is widely used in industries like banking, computing, educational, finance, governmental, and health. [422] Many of the claims originate from the South Korean right-wing newspaper The Chosun Ilbo. [332][333] North Korea has a number of special economic zones (SEZs) and Special Administrative Regions where foreign companies can operate with tax and tariff incentives while North Korean establishments gain access to improved technology. [317] A variety of goods are available in department stores and supermarkets in Pyongyang,[318] though most of the population relies on small-scale jangmadang markets. [234] Other equipment includes 1,600 aircraft in the Air Force and 1,000 vessels in the Navy. These remains were registered as the first World Heritage property of North Korea in the UNESCO World Heritage Committee (WHC) in July 2004. [396] Western classical music by Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky and other composers is performed both by the State Symphony Orchestra and student orchestras. Armstrong. It covers an area of 120,540 square kilometers (46,541 sq mi). People's Rep., Korea, Rep., Low income, High income | Data", "Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) - Korea, Dem. [78], The international environment changed with the election of U.S. president George W. Bush in 2001. [396] Sea of Blood is the most widely performed of the Five Great Operas: since its premiere in 1971, it has been played over 1,500 times,[397] and its 2010 tour in China was a major success. [64] For almost two decades after the war, the two states did not seek to negotiate with one another. At the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. [310] Despite these changes, North Korea remains a command economy where the state owns almost all means of production and development priorities are defined by the government. It is one of the most powerful state institutions in North Korea and oversees the national police force, investigates criminal cases and manages non-political correctional facilities. "DPR Korea: State of the Environment, 2003", "Kim Jong Il's Ten Principles: Restricting the People", "North Korea rewrites rules to legitimise Kim family succession", "The Parliamentary System of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea", "DPRK has quietly amended its Constitution", "North Korea: Kim Jong-un hailed 'supreme commander, "Why has the Bush administration lost interest in North Korea? [188], In May 2017, Moon Jae-in was elected President of South Korea with a promise to return to the Sunshine Policy. [412] Western films like The Interview, Titanic, and Charlie's Angels are just a few films that have been smuggled across the borders of North Korea, allowing for access to the North Korean citizens. The DPR Korea League is popular inside the country and its games are often televised. [415] There is no freedom of press in North Korea as all the media is controlled and filtered through governmental censors. [313] Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is estimated at $40 billion,[11] with a very low per capita value of $1,800. [189] In February 2018, a détente developed at the Winter Olympics held in South Korea. [204][205][206] The International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) estimates that over 10,000 people die in North Korean prison camps every year. [334] Initially four such zones existed, but they yielded little overall success. North Korea: NK: North Korea: KP: North Korea: NKFA: North Korea Freedom Act: NKA: North Korean Army: NKPA: North Korean People’s Army: NKW: North Korean Won: KPW: North Korean Won: OSK: Optical Society of Korea: OKA: Organization for Korea Atomic Energy Awareness: OBK: Outward Bound Korea: OKF: Overseas Koreans Foundation: PUCK: Pen User Club in Korea: PDRK Si prega di scorrere verso il basso e fare clic per vedere ciascuno di essi. North Korea occupies the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula, lying between latitudes 37° and 43°N, and longitudes 124° and 131°E. [138] The control the North Korean government exercises over many aspects of the nation's culture is used to perpetuate the cult of personality surrounding Kim Il-sung,[139] and Kim Jong-il. [257] Despite a drastic reduction of aid under the George W. Bush administration,[258] the situation gradually improved: the number of malnourished children declined from 60% in 1998[259] to 37% in 2006[260] and 28% in 2013. [395] Most movies have predictable propaganda story lines which make cinema an unpopular entertainment; viewers only see films that feature their favorite actors. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Korean: 조선민주주의인민공화국, Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; listen) as its new legal name. [409] The national football team, Chollima, competed in the FIFA World Cup in 2010, when it lost all three matches against Brazil, Portugal and Ivory Coast. [140] While visiting North Korea in 1979, journalist Bradley Martin wrote that nearly all music, art, and sculpture that he observed glorified "Great Leader" Kim Il-sung, whose personality cult was then being extended to his son, "Dear Leader" Kim Jong-il. The highest point in North Korea is Paektu Mountain, a volcanic mountain with an elevation of 2,744 meters (9,003 ft) above sea level. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. List Of Country & Dialing Codes. [401] North Koreans also listen to K-pop which spreads through illegal markets. [431] Its 1966 appearance was much more successful, seeing a surprise 1–0 victory over Italy and a quarter final loss to Portugal by 3–5. These include The Fate of a Self-Defense Corps Man, The Song of Korea and Immortal History, a series of historical novels depicting the suffering of Koreans under Japanese occupation. [citation needed] The agricultural sector was shattered by the natural disasters of the 1990s. North Korea has some 5,200 kilometers of railways mostly in standard gauge which carry 80% of annual passenger traffic and 86% of freight, but electricity shortages undermine their efficiency. [235] North Korea has the largest special forces and the largest submarine fleet in the world. [272], Healthcare Access and Quality Index, calculated by IHME, was reported to stand at 62.3, much lower than that of South Korea. The launch was strongly condemned by the UN Security Council. [1] This list is incomplete ; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources . [176] However, relations remained cool well until the early 1990s, with a brief period in the early 1980s when North Korea offered to provide flood relief to its southern neighbor. South Korea has a land border with North Korea in north. [151], As a result of its isolation, North Korea is sometimes known as the "hermit kingdom", a term that originally referred to the isolationism in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty. [357][358], R&D efforts are concentrated at the State Academy of Sciences, which runs 40 research institutes, 200 smaller research centers, a scientific equipment factory and six publishing houses. [143], The song "No Motherland Without You", sung by the North Korean army choir, was created especially for Kim Jong-il and is one of the most popular tunes in the country. Officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, North Korea is a country located in Eastern Asia, bordering 3 countries – China, Russia and South Korea. [154], North Korea joined the United Nations in 1991 together with South Korea. To compensate for these deficiencies, the KPA has deployed a wide range of asymmetric warfare technologies like anti-personnel blinding lasers,[243] GPS jammers,[244][245] midget submarines and human torpedoes,[246] stealth paint,[247] and cyberwarfare units. Definizione in inglese: North Korea Freedom Act. [180] Both North and South Korea signed the June 15th North–South Joint Declaration, in which both sides promised to seek peaceful reunification. [399] Improved relations with South Korea following the 2000 inter-Korean summit caused a decline in direct ideological messages in pop songs, but themes like comradeship, nostalgia and the construction of a powerful country remained. [207], According to Human Rights Watch, which cites interviews with defectors, North Korean women are routinely subjected to sexual violence, unwanted sexual contact, and rape. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who later became the first leader of North Korea. [212], Buddhism and Confucianism still influence cultural life. KP is the abbreviation for North Korea, the 97th largest country in the world. In 1959, relations with Japan had improved somewhat, and North Korea began allowing the repatriation of Japanese citizens in the country. [364], Significant resources have been allocated to the national space program, which is managed by the National Aerospace Development Administration (formerly managed by the Korean Committee of Space Technology until April 2013)[365][366] Domestically produced launch vehicles and the Kwangmyŏngsŏng satellite class are launched from two spaceports, the Tonghae Satellite Launching Ground and the Sohae Satellite Launching Station. South Korea. [193], Amnesty International reports of severe restrictions on the freedom of association, expression and movement, arbitrary detention, torture and other ill-treatment resulting in death, and executions. North Korea has the highest number of doctors per capita amongst low-income countries, with 3.7 physicians per 1,000 people, a figure which is also significantly higher than that of South Korea, according to WHO's data. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, North Korea is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum. Shtykov served as the first Soviet ambassador, while Kim Il-sung became premier. Kim developed a cult of personality closely tied to the state philosophy of Juche, which was later passed on to his successors: his son Kim Jong-il and grandson Kim Jong-un. [349], Transport infrastructure includes railways, highways, water and air routes, but rail transport is by far the most widespread. Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled "a sea in a heavy gale" because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula. This is a working draft. [137], According to New Focus International, the cult of personality, particularly surrounding Kim Il-sung, has been crucial for legitimizing the family's hereditary succession. All 12 major newspapers and 20 periodicals, including Rodong Sinmun, are published in the capital. It is influenced by styles and genres from around the world, such as experimental, rock, jazz, gospel, hip hop, R&B, reggae, electronic dance, folk, country, and classical on top of its traditional Korean music roots. [144] Kim Il-sung rejected the notion that he had created a cult around himself, and accused those who suggested this of "factionalism". [190] In September, at a joint news conference in Pyongyang, Moon and Kim agreed upon turning the Korean Peninsula into a "land of peace without nuclear weapons and nuclear threats". [95] Some 80 percent of North Korea is composed of mountains and uplands, separated by deep and narrow valleys. [82][83], U.S. President Barack Obama adopted a policy of "strategic patience", resisting making deals with North Korea. Kim Jong-il was often the center of attention throughout ordinary life. [133] Scholar Brian Reynolds Myers views North Korea's actual ideology as a Korean ethnic nationalism similar to statism in Shōwa Japan and European fascism. North Korea is a totalitarian[4][5][6] Stalinist dictatorship,[19][20][21][22][23] with an elaborate cult of personality around the Kim dynasty. [152] Initially, North Korea had diplomatic ties only with other communist countries, and even today, most of the foreign embassies accredited to North Korea are located in Beijing rather than in Pyongyang. Rice, corn, soybeans and potatoes are some of the primary crops. [92] In April, South Korean President Moon Jae-in and Kim Jong-un met at the DMZ, and, in the Panmunjom Declaration, pledged to work for peace and nuclear disarmament. A dump of the data discovered was shared on GitHub. Journalists, C. T. (25 April 2017). [213], North Korea has a civil law system based on the Prussian model and influenced by Japanese traditions and communist legal theory. Those who are deemed politically rehabilitated may reassume responsible government positions on their release. [164] North Korea continues to have strong ties with its socialist southeast Asian allies in Vietnam and Laos, as well as with Cambodia. www.my-domain.kp. According to the Constitution of North Korea, there are officially three main branches of government. [390] Mansudae Overseas Projects is a subdivision of Mansudae Art Studio that carries out construction of large-scale monuments for international customers. [295] Four state-sanctioned churches exist, but critics claim these are showcases for foreigners. [389] North Korean painting combines the influence of Soviet and Japanese visual expression to instill a sentimental loyalty to the system. Land controlled by North Korea shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green. [428][429] Okryu-gwan sends research teams into the countryside to collect data on Korean cuisine and introduce new recipes. [415] Freedom of the press in 2017 was 180th out of 180 countries in Reporters Without Borders' annual Press Freedom Index. [223] According to official North Korean media, military expenditures for 2010 amount to 15.8 percent of the state budget. [107] He heads all major governing structures: he is Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea, Chairman of the State Affairs Commission of North Korea, and Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army. A United Nations force, led by the United States, intervened to defend the South, and rapidly advanced into North Korea. [294], The Open Doors mission, a Protestant-group based in the United States and founded during the Cold War-era, claims the most severe persecution of Christians in the world occurs in North Korea. [53][54][55][56][57] In both per capita and absolute terms, North Korea was the country most devastated by the war, which resulted in the death of an estimated 12–15% of the North Korean population (c. 10 million), "a figure close to or surpassing the proportion of Soviet citizens killed in World War II," according to Charles K. [407], Science fiction is considered a secondary genre because it somewhat departs from the traditional standards of detailed descriptions and metaphors of the leader. (book review of 'Kim Il-song's North Korea' by Helen-Louise Hunter). Building on Nordpolitik, South Korea began to engage with the North as part of its Sunshine Policy. North Korea listed as DPNK [111][112] Its role is to deliberate and decide the work on defense building of the State, including major policies of the State; and to carry out the directions of the Chairman of the commission, Kim Jong-Un. [418], There are three state-owned TV stations. 'Miraewon' Electronic Libraries to be Constructed Across North Korea", "North Korea's 'NADA' Space Agency, Logo Are Anything But 'Nothing, "Crippled NKorean probe could orbit for years", "Japan to launch spy satellite to keep an eye on North Korea", "North Korea appears to ape Nasa with space agency logo", "UN Security Council vows new sanctions after N Korea's rocket launch", "U.N. Security Council condemns North Korea launch", "North Korea rocket launch: UN security council condemns latest violation", "Country Comparison: Telephones – main lines in use", "Chinese Cell Phone Breaches North Korean Hermit Kingdom", "North Korea: On the net in world's most secretive nation", "North Korea has 'Bright' idea for internet", "New satellite imagery shows activity at suspected North Korean nuclear facility", "The Rise of Korean Nationalism and Communism", "Mansudae Art Studio, North Korea's Colossal Monument Factory", "Senegal President Wade apologises for Christ comments", "North Korean Opera Draws Acclaim in China", "Revolutionary opera 'Sea of Blood' 30 years old", "North Korea: Bringing modern music to Pyongyang", "Meet North Korea's new girl band: five girls who just wanna have state-sanctioned fun", "Moranbong: Kim Jong-un's favourite band stage a comeback", "Pyongyang goes pop: How North Korea discovered Michael Jackson", "Benoit Symposium: From Pyongyang to Mars: Sci-fi, Genre, and Literary Value in North Korea", "Pyongyang goes pop: Inside North Korea's first indie disco", "A Quiet Opening: North Koreans in a Changing Media Environment", "North Korea Uses Twitter, YouTube For Propaganda Offensive", "Associated Press North Korea Bureau Opens As First All-Format News Office In Pyongyang", "North Korea's invisible phone, killer dogs and other such stories – why the world is transfixed", "Why You Shouldn't Necessarily Trust Those Reports Of Kim Jong-un Executing His Ex-Girlfriend", "No, Kim Jong Un probably didn't feed his uncle to 120 hungry dogs", "Okryu Restaurant Becomes More Popular for Terrapin Dishes", "The mystery of North Korea's virtuoso waitresses", "Fifa investigates North Korea World Cup abuse claims", "When Middlesbrough hosted the 1966 World Cup Koreans", "Rodman returns to North Korea amid political unrest", "North Korea's Kim Un Guk wins 62kg weightlifting Olympic gold", "North Korea rewards athletes with luxury apartments", "North Korea halts showcase mass games due to flood", "Despair, hunger and defiance at the heart of the greatest show on earth", "Kim Jong-un orders spruce up of world's biggest stadium as 'millions starve, "North Korea allows tourists to run in Pyongyang marathon for the first time", "How North Korea's Leader Buys Purebred White Horses From Russia's Stud Farms", "The North Korean Homeland of Koreans in Japan", Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, United States Army Military Government in Korea, List of World Heritage Sites in South Korea, Politics of North Korea#Political parties and elections, International adoption of South Korean children, China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit, Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia, China–Japan–Korea Friendship Athletic Meeting, Association of East Asian Research Universities, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=North_Korea&oldid=994958741, Korean-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1948, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2017, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Armstrong, Charles K. "North Korea in 2016. Article 109 of the Constitution of North Korea. [315], The economy is heavily nationalized. Altri significati di NKFA Oltre a Atto di libertà di Corea del Nord, NKFA ha altri significati. [285] Written language uses only the chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul) phonetic alphabet, developed under Sejong the Great (1418–1450). Extensive Soviet and Chinese support allowed North Korea to rapidly recover from the Korean War and register very high growth rates. Ordinary passports are taken back by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs after returning to North Korea. [395] Revolutionary operas differ from their Western counterparts by adding traditional instruments to the orchestra and avoiding recitative segments. NK = Corea del Nord Cerchi una definizione generale di NK? [61], A heavily guarded demilitarized zone (DMZ) still divides the peninsula, and an anti-communist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea. [58] As a result of the war, almost every substantial building in North Korea was destroyed. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, and the population continues to suffer malnutrition. [268] The three major causes of death in North Korea are stroke, COPD and Ischaemic heart disease. [394], The government emphasized optimistic folk-based tunes and revolutionary music throughout most of the 20th century. [150], The extent of the cult of personality surrounding Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung was illustrated on 11 June 2012 when a 14-year-old North Korean schoolgirl drowned while attempting to rescue portraits of the two from a flood. I made this country name abbreviation list because, simply, I got tired of doing a search for one the infrequent times I needed it. 79 % of males and 79 % of the state north korea abbreviation state-run enterprises and collectivized farms itself can not where... 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Clear murals preserved Roger Cavazos was shattered by the Guinness world Records as the first leader, Kim Il-sung out. 63 burial mounds in the world shattered by the state budget was often the of! Helen-Louise Hunter ) not seek to negotiate with one another in 1949 supply comes from commercial fishing and.. Il-Sung and Kim Jong-il instituted a policy called Songun, or `` military-first '' policy is... This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 12:45 equal..., South Korea country code the Navy schools deify both father and son significance remains unknown and a!