Natalie Portman Dior , Boston Pronunciation , Great Eastern Health Connect , In 2004 Tamil was declared a classical language of India, meaning that it met three criteria: its origins are ancient; it has an independent tradition; and it possesses a considerable body of ancient literature. Even though the name of the language which was developed by these Tamil Sangams is mentioned as Tamil, the period when the name "Tamil" came to be applied to the language is unclear, as is the precise etymology of the name. For example, the word vazhi (வழி) meaning "way" can take these to produce ivvazhi (இவ்வழி) "this way", avvazhi (அவ்வழி) "that way", uvvazhi (உவ்வழி) "the medial way" and evvazhi (எவ்வழி) "which way". For example, ன is ṉa (with the inherent a) and ன் is ṉ (without a vowel). And we contantly add more new words to our dictionary. [119] In the first person plural, Tamil makes a distinction between inclusive pronouns நாம் nām (we), நமது namatu (our) that include the addressee and exclusive pronouns நாங்கள் nāṅkaḷ (we), எமது ematu (our) that do not.[119]. A typical Tamil verb form will have a number of suffixes, which show person, number, mood, tense, and voice. [8] It was once given nominal official status in the Indian state of Haryana, purportedly as a rebuff to Punjab, though there was no attested Tamil-speaking population in the state, and was later replaced by Punjabi, in 2010. Tamil belongs to the southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around 26 languages native to the Indian subcontinent. [67] Tamil was used for inscriptions from the 10th through 14th centuries in southern Karnataka districts such as Kolar, Mysore, Mandya and Bangalore.[68]. Ellis, F. W. (1820), "Note to the introduction" in Campbell, A.D., List of territorial entities where Tamil is an official language, 22 languages under schedule 8 of the constitution of India, Pudumaipithan's short story 'Pon Nagaram', List of countries where Tamil is an official language, List of languages by first written accounts, "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011", Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 1: Founding Provisions", Republic of Singapore Independence Act, s.7, "Statement on the Status of Tamil as a Classical Language", Definitive Editions of Ancient Tamil Works, "Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India", "Palani excavation triggers fresh debate", "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil", "Delay, howlers in Tamil Lexicon embarrass scholars", UN Chronicle – National Identity and Minority Languages, "Strangers to Their Roots and Those Around Them", Myanmar's Tamils seek to protect their identity, "Canada officially declares pride in its Tamils, passes Bill calling for Tamil Heritage Month", "Constitutional Court of South Africa – The Constitution", "Five Indian languages reinstated as official subjects in South African schools", "For these islanders, a reunion with Tamil", "Tradition, Modernity and Impact of Globalization – Whither Will Tamil Go? The increasing use of koṭuntamiḻ in modern times has led to the emergence of unofficial ‘standard' spoken dialects. [103] Tamil phonology permits few consonant clusters, which can never be word initial. Malayalam and Sri Lankan Tamil dialects still retain the original (alveolar) stop sound in gemination (ibid). [34] The earliest epigraphic attestations of Tamil are generally taken to have been written from the 2nd century BC. [36] Scholars categorise the attested history of the language into three periods: Old Tamil (300 BC–AD 700), Middle Tamil (700–1600) and Modern Tamil (1600–present). Tamil also uses several historical fractional signs. Kamil Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iḻ, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", and "-iḻ" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". 43. One of 22 scheduled languages in the Constitution of India, Tamil was the first to be classified as a classical language of India and is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. In Old Tamil it took the enunciative vowel like the other stops. Elsewhere they are voiced, with a few becoming fricatives intervocalically, which means that voicing is not a phonological trait for plosives. Tamil verbs are also inflected through the use of suffixes. The "rational" nouns and pronouns belong to one of three classes (pāl)—masculine singular, feminine singular, and rational plural. Urmika: Urmika means ‘small wave’. While this distinction can still be seen in the written language, it has been largely lost in colloquial spoken Tamil, and even in literary usage the letters ந (dental) and ன (alveolar) may be seen as allophonic. Tamil is a consistently head-final language. [66] As a result, the Prakrit and Sanskrit loan words used in modern Tamil are, unlike in some other Dravidian languages, restricted mainly to some spiritual terminology and abstract nouns. Tamil is a very old classical language and has inscriptions from 500 B.C and plays a significant role as a language in the world today. It is also spoken by the Tamil diaspora found in many countries, including Malaysia, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia and Mauritius. Among the other Dravidian languages, the retroflex approximant also occurs in Malayalam (for example in 'Kozhikode'), disappeared from spoken Kannada around 1000 AD (although the character is still written, and exists in Unicode, ೞ as in ಕೊೞೆ), and was never present in Telugu. Yazhini: Are you looking for baby girl names in Tamil then we have a great one for you. [101] Tamil nouns can take one of four prefixes: i, a, u, and e which are functionally equivalent to the demonstratives in English. [51] The earliest long text in Old Tamil is the Tolkāppiyam, an early work on Tamil grammar and poetics, whose oldest layers could be as old as the late 2nd century BC. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. [83] Tamil language is available as a course in some local school boards and major universities in Canada and the month of January has been declared "Tamil Heritage Month" by the Parliament of Canada. "Literature in all Dravidian languages owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom" (Sastri 1955, p. 309); Trautmann, Thomas R. (2006). Apart from the usual numerals, Tamil has numerals for 10, 100 and 1000. [10][11][12] A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past. Long vowels are about twice as long as short vowels. [99] Tamil in Sri Lanka incorporates loan words from Portuguese, Dutch, and English. 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